•  

Glossary

05 February 2013

A

  • ADENOCARCINOMA: A cancerous tumour developing from the glandular component of any organ (particularly the prostate or kidney)
  • ADH - ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE: A natural body chemical that slows down the production of urine. Some children who wet their beds regularly may lack normal amounts of antidiuretic hormone. Also called Vasopressin
  • ALBUMINURIA: More than normal amounts of a protein called albumin in the urine. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease
  • ANAL MANOMETRY: Use of a small catheter inserted through the rectum to determine how well the anal sphincter works
  • ANALGESIC: A drug used to relieve pain
  • ANGIOMYOLIPOMA: A benign tumour of the kidney which arises from blood vessels and fat; it may, if it grows large enough, rupture and cause bleeding into or around the kidney
  • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY: A drug which reduces inflammation and helps to relieve pain; often used to treat prostatitis & the pain of kidney stones
  • ANURIA: A condition in which the body stops making urine
  • AUS: Artificial Urinary Sphincter
  • AZOOSPERMIA: The complete absence of sperms in ejaculated semen; one cause of male-factor infertility. Usually due to failure of production of sperms by the testis or to obstruction of the tubing along which sperms normally pass

B

  • BALANITIS: Inflammation of the foreskin or the tip of the penis
  • BALLOON DILATATION: A treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia or prostate enlargement. A tiny balloon is inflated inside the urethra to make it wider so urine can flow more freely from the bladder
  • BIOPSY: A procedure in which a tiny piece of a body part, such as the kidney or bladder, is removed for examination under a microscope
  • Burch Colposuspension: Is a treatment for women with stress incontinence. The front wall of the vagina is lifted and fixed with permanent stitches onto a ligament behind the pubic bone. This provides better support for the bladder neck so that it stays closed under pressure. Normally at least six weeks off work is expected
  • BLADDER: The midline, lower abdominal organ which stores urine prior to its expulsion via the urethra
  • Bone Scan: A type of scan which is usually used to determine if there has been spread of tumour into the bones
  • BO: Bowels opened
  • BPH: Benign prostatic hyperplasia; benign (non cancerous) enlargement of the prostate gland, invariably seen with increasing age
  • BRACHYTHERAPY: A type of radiotherapy where radioactive seeds are implanted directly into an organ, usually the prostate gland
  • BULKING INJECTION: Injection of bulk material, such as collagen or other materials, next to the opening of the bladder to build up the urethral wall.
  • BWO:Bowels well opened
  • BXO: Balanitis xerotica obliterans; a scarring disease of the foreskin, of unknown cause, which results in a tight foreskin

C

  • CA: Short for cancer
  • CALCIUM OXALATE: The commonest constituent of kidney stones and the type of stone which is most prone to recur
  • CALCIUM: A mineral that the body needs for strong bones and teeth. Calcium may form stones in the kidney
  • CALCULUS: A stone, usually in the kidney or ureter, but may also occur on the prostate or bladder
  • CALYX: The outermost part of the collecting system of the kidney where urine is first released for excretion
  • CATHETER: A latex, polyurethane, or silicone tube passed into a hollow organ (usually the bladder) to drain its contents
  • CHEMOTHERAPY: The use of drugs to treat cancer
  • CHORDEE: A deformity of the penis which results in a bending on erection
  • CHRONIC PROSTATITIS: Inflammation of the prostate gland, developing slowly and lasting a long time
  • CHRONIC: Lasting a long time. Chronic diseases develop slowly. Chronic kidney disease may develop over many years and lead to end-stage renal disease
  • CIRCUMCISION: Surgical removal of the foreskin, usually performed for phimosis
  • COLLAGEN: The major protein found in tissues, cartilage, and bones. Collagen injections are used to treat stress urinary incontinence.
  • COLPOSUSPENSION (See Birch colposuspension):  The operation strengthens the pelvic floor to lift the uterus and bladder back up again. It is called a colposuspension, from the Greek name for the vagina – colpos. The abdomen is opened (Open Colposuspension) and the bladder neck is lifted upwards by stitching the lower part of the front of the vagina to a ligament behind the pubic bone. There is also Laproscopic Colposuspension, performed as keyhole surgery. After this operation, most people recover and get back to work more quickly than with Open Colposuspension, but its success rate is less good
  • CONSTIPATION: less than 3 bowel movements a week; difficulty emptying the bowel; having to strain to have a bowel movement; passing small, hard stools; or needing to place the fingers in the vagina or on the space between the vagina and the anus to have a bowel movement
  • CT: Computerised tomography; a form of X-ray where slices are taken through the body to produce images at different levels
  • CYSTECTOMY: Surgical removal of the bladder, usually for invasive cancer
  • CYSTINURIA: A condition in which urine contains high levels of the amino acid cystine. If cystine does not dissolve in the urine, it can build up to form kidney stones
  • CYSTITIS: Inflammation of the internal lining of the bladder, causing pain and a burning feeling in the pelvis or urethra
  • CYSTOCELE: When the bladder falls or sags from its normal position down to the pelvic floor, it can cause either urinary leakage or urinary retention. A prolapse (bulging) of the bladder into the vagina
  • CYSTOGRAM: An X-ray of the bladder where dye is inserted into the bladder using a catheter
  • CYSTOMETROGRAM: A line graph that records urinary bladder pressure at various volumes
  • CYSTOSCOPY / URETHROSCOPY: Use of a small lighted scope to examine the internal lining of the urethra and bladder.
  • CYTOLOGY: The study of individual cells, usually in the urine, to identify malignancy or other disorders

D

  • DESMOPRESSIN: A synthetic form of antidiuretic hormone used to treat enuresis and diabetes insipidus
  • DIABETES INSIPIDUS: A disease of the pituitary gland or kidney. The signs of diabetes insipidus are a need to drink and urinate often and a feeling of weakness. However, blood glucose levels are normal
  • DIABETES MELLITUS: A condition characterized by high blood glucose resulting from the body’s inability to use glucose efficiently. In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas makes little or no insulin; in type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to the effects of available insulin
  • DILATATION: Stretching or widening of an opening, usually the urethra or neck of the bladder
  • DIVERTICULUM: An abnormal pouch leading off the cavity of a hollow organ; most commonly seen in the bladder/bowel
  • DRE: Digital rectal examination; insertion of a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum usually to check for any abnormalities of the prostate or lower bowel
  • DYNAMIC FLOUROSCOPY OF THE PELVIC FLOOR: Use of x-ray images and a contrast dye to study the extent of prolapse in the rectum, vagina, and bladder during a bowel movement
  • DYSURIA: Painful urination

E

  • EMG - ELECTRO DIAGNOSTIC OF THE PELVIC FLOOR of the pelvic floor: use of EMG sensors in adhesive patches to test nerve and muscle response to light electrical impulses
  • ENTEROCELE: Prolapse (bulging) of the small intestine into a space between the rectum and the vagina
  • ENURESIS: Refers to a repeated inability to control urination. Use of the term is usually limited to describing individuals old enough to be expected to exercise such control.Can be caused by a variety of factors. These include disorders of the kidneys, bladder, or ureter; and poor control of the muscles that control release of urine
  • EPIDIDYMIS: The sperm-carrying mechanism lying behind the testis which carries sperms from the testis to the vas deferens during ejaculation
  • EPIDIDYMITIS: Inflammation/infection of the epididymis, often involving the testis as well (epididymo-orchitits)
  • ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: The inability to get or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse. Also called impotence
  • ESWL: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; shockwaves generated in water, focussed and fired through the body to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter
  • ESWL: Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy; shockwaves generated in water, focussed and fired through the body to fragment stones in the kidney or ureter
  • EXSTROPHY: A congenital condition where the bladder remains on the surface of the lower abdomen open to the outside
  • EXTRAVASATION: Leakage of urine or surgical irrigation fluid outside the urinary tract

F

  • FRANK HEAMATUREA: Blood in the urine
  • FREQUENCY: Needing to urinate more often than every 2 hours or more than 8 times a day

G


H

  • HAEMATOSPERMIA: Blood in the semen during ejaculation
  • HAEMATOSPERMIA: Blood in the semen during ejaculation
  • HAEMATURIA: Blood in the urine. It can be macroscopic (seen with the naked eye), or microscopic (detected only by testing the urine)
  • HESITANCY: Having to wait an abnormally long time for the flow of urine to start
  • HYDROCELE: An abnormal collection of fluid in the naturally-occurring sac which surrounds the testicle
  • HYDRONEPHROS: Swelling at the top of the ureter, usually because something is blocking the urine from flowing into or out of the bladder
  • HYPOSPADIUS:  A birth defect in which the opening of the urethra, called the urinary meatus, is on the underside of the penis instead of at the tip


I

  • IC - INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS: A disorder that causes the bladder wall to become swollen and irritated, leading to scarring and stiffening of the bladder, decreased bladder capacity, and, in rare cases, ulcers in the bladder lining. IC is also known as painful bladder syndrome
  • IC: Intermittent catheterisation
  • ISC: Intermittent self catheterisation
  • INCONTINENCE: Involuntary leakage of urine or faeces
  • INTRRAVENOUS PYELOGRAPHY: An x ray of the urinary tract. A dye is injected to make urine visible on the x ray and show any blockage in the urinary tract
  • IVF: In-vitro fertilisation, where embryos are made by fertilizing the female's eggs outside the womb
  • IVU: Intravenous urogram; an X-ray of the kidneys, ureters and bladder performed using an injection of dye into a vein in the arm

K

  • KEGEL EXERCISES: Tightening and relaxing the pelvic floor muscles muscles that hold urine in the bladder and hold the bladder in its proper position. These exercises can improve a woman’s ability to hold in her urine
  • KIDNEY STONE:  A stone that develops from crystals that form in urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney, in the renal pelvis, or in the ureters
  • KIDNEY: One of two paired organs (normally) which lie at the back of the abdomen, in front of the lower ribs, and filter the blood to produce urine

L

  • LITHOLAPAXY: Crushing of a stone, usually in the bladder, to reduce it to fragments small enough to be passed spontaneously or removed through an endoscope
  • LITHOTRIPSY: Wearing away of a stone; usually synonymous with ESWL


M

  • METASTASIS: A secondary tumour (remote from the original cancer) which has arisen by spread through the blood, the lymph system or by direct invasion
  • MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging; a means of producing cross-sectional images of the body to characterise tissues by the way the electrons in the tissue move in response to a strong magnetic field
  • MSU: Mid Stream Urine. The collection of a specimen of urine to see if there is a urinary tract infection


N

  • NEPHROLITHIASIS: The medical term for kidney stones
  • NEPHRON: The microscopic filtering unit in the kidney which filters water and waste products from the blood
  • NEPHROTIC SYNDROME: A collection of symptoms that indicate kidney damage. Symptoms include high levels of protein in the urine, lack of protein in the blood, and high blood cholesterol
  • NEUROGENIC BLADDER: Loss of bladder control caused by damage to the nerves controlling the bladder
  • NEUROMODULATION: Placement of a nerve-stimulating device to help to help with bladder control – pelvic floor stimulation (PFX) Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS)
  • NOCTURIA: Abnormal passage of urine at night

O

  • OAB- OVER ACTIVE BLADDER: An overactive bladder is a condition that results from sudden, involuntary contraction of the muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder. Overactive bladder causes a sudden and unstoppable need to urinate (urinary urgency), even though the bladder may only contain a small amount of urine
  • OD: Once daily

P

  • PAINFUL BLADDER SYNDROME: See interstitial cystitis
  • PARAPHIMOSIS: Retraction of a tight foreskin which becomes “stuck” due to an inability to return it to its original position covering the head of the penis
  • PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLES: Muscles that support the bladder the bladder the bowel and in females the womb
  • PELVIC FLOOR MUSCLE EXERCISES (PFX): Specific exercises for the sphincter and pelvic floor muscles.
  • PERCUTANEOUS NEPHROLITHOTOMY: A method for removing kidney stones via keyhole surgery through the back.
  • PESSARY: A specially designed object worn in the vagina to hold the bladder in its correct position and prevent leakage of urine. Pessaries come in many shapes and sizes.
  • PEYRONIE’S DISEASE: A plaque that forms on the penis, preventing that area from stretching. During erection, the penis bends in the direction of the plaque, or the plaque may lead to indentation and shortening of the penis.
  • PHIMOSIS: Tightness of the foreskin, either due to a scarring disease or as a result of a congenital abnormality
  • POLYURIA: Over-production of urine, usually at night; often occurs in the elderly due to poor water handling ability with increasing age
  • PRN: Pro re nata - In reference to dosage of prescribed medication that is not scheduled; instead administration is left to the nurse/caregiver or the patient's prerogative
  • PROSTATE GLAND: A walnut-sized organ lying at the base of the bladder which produces chemicals to nourish sperm and facilitate their transport to the female uterus
  • PROSTATITIS: Infection or inflammation of the prostate gland, chronic prostatitis means the prostate gets inflamed over and over again
  • PR: Per rectum
  • PSA – PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN: A protein made only by the prostate gland. High levels of PSA in the blood may be a sign of prostate cancer
  • PU: Pass urine
  • PV: Per vagina – vaginal examination
  • PYLONEPHRITIS: An infection of the kidneys, usually caused by a germ that has travelled up through the urethra, bladder, and ureters from outside the body

R

  • RADIOTHERAPY: The use of X-Rays to treat cancer
  • RECTOCELE: Prolapse (bulging) of the rectum into the vagina
  • RENAL COLIC: The passage of a stone down the ureter which causes severe intermittent pain

S

  • SACROSPINOUS FIXATION: It is an operation to treat prolapse of the womb and/or vagina. The aim of the operation is to attach the upper vagina and/or cervix to the sacrospinous ligament. This ligament is part of the pelvic floor. This operation is usually performed together with other operations to treat prolapse. These include vaginal hysterectomy and vaginal repairs
  • SEMINAL VESICLE: A sac lying behind the prostate gland which stores seminal fluid and sperms in preparation for ejaculation
  • SPHINCTER: A round muscle that opens and closes to let fluid or other matter pass into or out of an organ. Sphincter muscles keep the bladder closed until it is time to urinate
  • STRESS INCONTINENCE: Leakage of urine caused by actions—such as coughing, laughing, sneezing, running, or lifting—that place pressure on the bladder from inside the body. Stress urinary incontinence can result from either a cystoceole or weak sphincter muscles
  • SUBURETHRAL SLING: Surgical procedure to support the urethra by means of a sling. The sling can be made of synthetic or natural materials
  • SUPRAPUBIC CATHETER: A catheter placed into the bladder through the abdomen to provide drainage after surgery. Can be used long or short term

T

  • TDS: Three times a day
  • TESTOSTERONE: The main male hormone produced mainly by the testicles (and by the adrenal gands)
  • TNM: A staging system for cancer which describes the extent of the primary tumour (T), the lymph nodes (N) and metastases (M)
  • TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA: A malignant (cancerous) tumour arising from the internal lining of the urinary tract
  • TRANSURETHRAL: Through the urethra. Several transurethral procedures are treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • TUIP: Widens the urethra by making a few small cuts in the bladder neck, where the urethra joins the bladder, and in the prostate gland itself
  • TUMT: Destroys excess prostate tissue interfering with the exit of urine from the body by using a probe in the urethra to deliver microwaves
  • TUNA: Destroys excess prostate tissue with electromagnetically generated heat by using a needle-like device in the urethra
  • TUR: Transurethral resection, usually of the prostate gland (TURP) or of a tumour in the bladder (TURBT)
  • TURP: Removes the excess prostate tissue by using an instrument with an electrical loop
  • TVT: Tension-free vaginal tape-type-sling: a less-invasive surgical procedure for placing a suburethral sling, a support for the urethra
  • TVT - O: Similar to the above - Operation for stress urinary incontinence using a mesh-kit for inside-out midurethral synthetic sling placement


U

  • ULTRASOUND: Use of sound waves to study pelvic organs such as the bladder to create an image of their structure
  • URETER: The thin, muscular tube which propels urine down from the kidneys to the bladder
  • URETEROSCOPE: A tool for examining the bladder and ureters and for removing kidney stones through the urethra. The procedure is called a ureteroscopy
  • URETEROSCOPY: Inspection of the ureter (and/or kidney) using a telescope (either flexible or rigid) with an attached light source passed into the bladder and up the ureter towards the kidney
  • URETHRA: The tube through which urine passes to the outside of the body from the bladder
  • URETHRAL OBSTRUCTION: A blockage in the urethra. A kidney stone is the most common cause
  • URETHRITIS:  Inflammation of the urethra
  • URGE INCONTINENCE: A sudden uncontrollable urge to urinate. Also called overactive bladder - OAB
  • URGENCY: A sudden, irresistible desire to pass urine
  • URINALYSIS: A test of a urine sample that can reveal many problems of the urinary tract and other body systems. The sample may be observed for color, cloudiness, concentration; signs of drug use; chemical composition, including glucose; the presence of protein, blood cells, or germs; or other signs of disease
  • URINARY TRACT: The system that takes wastes from the blood and carries them out of the body in the form of urine. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
  • URINATE: To release urine from the bladder to the outside
  • URINE CULTURE: A test for bacteria in the urine
  • URODYNAMICS: Use of a small catheter inserted into the bladder to study how well the bladder and urethra store and empty urine (an office procedure)
  • UROFLOW TEST:  Measurement of the rate at which urine flows out of the body. A lower than normal rate can indicate obstruction
  • UROLITHIASIS: Stones in the urinary tract
  • UROSTOMY: An opening through the skin into the urinary tract to allow urine to drain when voiding through the urethra is not possible
  • UTERINE PROLAPSE: The womb pushing through into the vagina
  • UTI – URINARY TRACT INFECTION: A urinary tract infection is an infection caused by pathogenic organisms (for example, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in any of the structures that comprise the urinary tract. However, this is the broad definition of urinary tract infections; many practitioners  prefer to use more specific terms that localize the urinary tract infection to the major structural segment involved such as urethritis (urethral infection), cystitis (bladder infection), ureter infection, and pyelonephritis (kidney infection)

V

  • VAGINAL VAULT PROLAPSE: The top of the vagina sagging after the removal of the womb (after a hysterectomy)
  • VARICOCELE: An abnormal collection of varicose veins above the testicle, usually on the left side
  • VAS DEFERENS: A muscular tube which carries sperm from the epididymis into the urethra during ejaculation of semen
  • VASOPRESSIN: See Antidiuretic hormone
  • VESICOURETERAL REFLUX: An abnormal condition in which urine backs up into the ureters and occasionally into the kidneys, raising the risk of infection
  • VE: Vaginal examination
  • VIOD: To urinate, empty the bladder
  • VOIDING CYSTOURTHROGRAM: An x-ray image of the bladder and urethra made during voiding. The bladder and urethra are filled with a special fluid to make the urethra clearly visible

 

Other Abbreviations

  • a = before (ante)
  • ABG = arterial blood gas
  • ABT = antibiotic therapy
  • ac = before meals (ante cibum)
  • AD = right ear (auricula dexter)
  • ADH = antidiuretic hormone
  • ad lib = as desired
  • am = before noon (ante meridian)
  • AMA = against medical advice
  • aq = water
  • AS = left ear (auricula sinister)
  • AU = both ears (auriculi utro)
  • bid(B.D) = twice a day (0900, 1700)
  • BP = blood pressure
  • BUN = blood urine nitrogen
  • c = with
  • cap = capsule
  • CAD = coronary artery disease
  • CAT = computerized axial tomography
  • CBC = complete blod count
  • CF = cystic fibrosis
  • CHF = congestive heart failure
  • CNS = central nervous system
  • CO = cardiac output
  • COPD = chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • CPK = creatinine phosphokinase
  • CSF = cerebrospinal fluid
  • CVA = cerebrovascular accident
  • CVP = central venous pressure
  • EC = enteric coated
  • ECG = electrocardiogram
  • EEG = electroencephalogram
  • elix = elixir
  • ext = extract
  • GFR glomerulofiltration rate
  • GT = gastrostomy
  • h = hour
  • hct = hematocrit
  • hgb = hemoglobin
  • hs = hour of sleep, bedtime (2100)
  • ID = intradermal
  • ICP = intracranial pressure
  • IM = intramuscular
  • IV = intravenous
  • IVP = intravenous push/pyelogram
  • IVPB = intravenous piggyback
  • KVO = keep vein open
  • MI = myocardial infarction
  • NG = nasogastric
  • NJ = nasojejunal
  • NPO = nothing by mouth
  • NS = normal saline
  • OD = right eye (oculus dexter)
  • oint = ointment
  • OTC = over the counter
  • OS = left eye (oculus sinister)
  • OU = both eyes (oculo utro)
  • p = after (post)
  • pc = after meals (post cibum)
  • per = by
  • pm = after noon (post meridian)
  • po = by mouth (per os)
  • pr = per rectal
  • prn = whenever necessary
  • PT = prothrombin time
  • PTT = partial prothrombin time
  • q = every
  • q1h = every 1 hour
  • q2h = every 2 hours
  • q3h = every 3 hours
  • q4h = every 4 hours (0900, 1300, 1700,...0500)
  • q6h = every 6 hours (2400, 0600, 1200, 1800)
  • q8h = every 8 hours (0600, 1400, 2200)
  • qd = every day (0900)
  • qh = every hour
  • qid = four times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, 2100)
  • qod = every other day
  • qs = quantity sufficient
  • RBC = red blood count
  • ROM = range of motion
  • s = without
  • sc = subcutaneous
  • sl = sublingual
  • sol = solution
  • sq = subcutaneous
  • SR = sustained release
  • ss = one half
  • S/S = signs and symptoms
  • stat = immediately
  • supp = suppository
  • susp = suspension
  • syr = syrup
  • tab = tablet
  • tid = three times a day (0900, 1300, 1700)
  • TO = telephone order
  • tr = tincture
  • ung = ointment
  • UTI = urinary tract infection
  • VO = verbal order
  • VS = vital signs
  • WBC = white blood count
  • WNL = within normal limits
Leave your comment